Competitors are permitted to ski in whichever style they choose (classical or freestyle), but all biathletes use the freestyle technique because it is significantly faster. In the relay events, the leadoff skiers for each team must use the classical technique for the first 100 meters so as not to disrupt the tracks of their fellow competitors. After the first 100m, the skiers may switch to the freestyle technique.
A competitor who wishes to pass another competitor must let the lead competitor know his intention, at which point the skier who is in front must move to the side of the trail to allow the trailing competitor to pass him easily. The skier who is being overtaken must move to the side on demand even if the trail is wide enough for him to be passed anyway. This obligation does not apply for the 100 meters before the finish line or the 100 meters before the hand-over zone during a relay.
The rifle must be carried on the back, with the barrel pointing up. If the rifle is so damaged during the competition that it cannot be carried on the back, it must be carried in hand to the shooting range and then must be immediately exchanged for the team reserve rifle.
Each time a competitor stops at the shooting range, he or she fires five rounds at five targets. (The only exception to this rule is the relay, in which competitors have three spare rounds for each shooting bout.) The distance between the firing line and the targets is 50 meters (164 feet).
During any given event, some of the shooting bouts will be conducted in the prone position and some in the standing position; the sequence varies according to the event. (See 'Competition Format.') Competitors are not allowed to remove their skis while shooting in either of the two positions.
The shooting range is flat and level and contains 30 shooting lanes, half of which are designated for standing position shooting and half of which are for prone position shooting, except in the pursuit event. (In the pursuit, all 30 lanes are originally set up for prone position shooting, and then are switched to standing position targets during the course of the race.) The lanes are between 2.7 and 3.0 meters (roughly between eight and a half and nine and a half feet) in width, with a metal target set up at the end of each. The lanes and targets are numbered from right to left, starting with number one on the extreme right. The target diameters are extremely small, 115 millimeters (4.53 inches) for standing and 45 millimeters (1.77 inches) for prone. (The prone position targets are smaller because a biathlete has more stability - and is therefore able to shoot more accurately - when lying on the ground than when standing.)
Targets are made of a white metal face plate with five holes in a horizontal row. Behind the holes in the face plate are the black hit plates which fall backward, or send an electronic pulse, when hit by a bullet and at the same time raising a white flap in front of the hole - thus causing a color change from black to white. When the target is scored, the black spots are counted to determine the number of penalties that a competitor has. The fallen plates can be reset by electronic impulse.
Competitors use smallbore rifles that are equipped with a shooting sling. The diameter of the barrel must be .22 inches (.22 caliber). The magazines for the rifle may only hold five bullets. In total, the rifle has a minimum weight of 3.5 kg (7.7 lbs). The rifle must not be loaded - a competitor must load his gun at the shooting range - and must be carried in the harness with the barrel up while a competitor is skiing.
Each rifle is equipped with both a rear and fore sight to help the competitor hit the targets. A competitor places his eye up to the rear sight to focus on the target. The fore sight is a marker at the end of the barrel that the competitor uses to align with the target before shooting.
For the two shooting positions, the competitors must comply with specific restrictions regarding their body placement.
For the prone position:
For the standing position: